如何辨认正确和错误的教法

Basic knowledges & Asking questions about Theravada
回复
头像
Ashoka
资讯发布
资讯发布
帖子: 1045
注册时间: 2019年 1月 7日 星期一 1:02 am

如何辨认正确和错误的教法

帖子 Ashoka » 2020年 8月 1日 星期六 9:50 am

辨认正确和错误的教法

#雷瓦达尊者

佛陀证入般涅槃之前,弟子们请示佛陀该如何辨认正确和错误的教法。佛陀这样讲解:“假设,有一位比库在说法,然后说:‘我教导你们的法,是我亲自从佛陀那里听闻而来’。纵然他这样说,请不要急着接受他所说,也不要急着舍弃它。把他的教法与我在经、律和阿毗达摩中的教法相比较。

唯有当你见到那是依据我曾经教导的,你应该接受他的教导。如果那不是依据我曾经教导的,请舍弃它。”因此,我们需要检查到底一位导师对我们所说的是不是正法。这是个人的责任。

在佛陀所举的例子中,一位比库在说“我教导你们的法,是我亲自从佛陀那里听闻而来”。如果他说的是事实,那么那位比库就是亲自遇见佛陀的人。然而,佛陀却说,即使在这种情况下,也不要立刻接受他的话。现今没有人能声称曾经遇见佛陀,所以,如果有人不以恭敬心教导佛法,这样的导师也许会以错误方式引导他人。

我们一定要尊重法,一定要尊重佛陀,也一定要尊重我们自己。如果我们不尊重自己,就会随心所欲去做事。我们一定要自量。趣向涅槃之道的教法出现,是由于一切知佛陀的出现,我们是没有一切知智的,所以不能只是随心所欲的去说法。如果我们不教导一切知者的教法,那就不是在饶益自己和他人,反而是在摧毁自他。因此,要把这个忠告永远铭记在心。

许多导师在没有怀着恶意的情形下,教导佛法时不臻圆满,或者说,他们在某些方面的教导不正确。换言之,有许多导师没有教导佛陀传授给我们的完美无暇之法。我们应该考虑到,这些导师是根据自身有限的能力在教导,而且他们也许甚至没有觉察到自己所教的并不符合佛陀所教的。

无论如何,我们也许还是能够从这些导师身上学到一些东西。我们应该学习,可是,我们一定也得懂得分辨是否要继续在他们的指导下学习教理和修行。虽然他们不能依据佛陀教法去教导,而且是根据他们有限的理解能力讲解和诠释佛陀的言教,他们还是提供了我们禅修的机会。假如没有恶意,他们就没有作下任何不善行。主要考量的是,如果追随着他们,我们就不能达到目标;他们只能带我们沿此道而行,仅此而已。

我们之所以被接引到这些导师跟前,也许是因为他们的名声。因为他们受到大众包括出家人的敬仰,所以我们跟他们学习。因为他们,我们对禅修产生兴趣而开始修行。因为有了这个机会,过后获得了另一个机会时,我们就可以和前者相比较。最终我们发现到,自己过去所学所修的,是以导师的传统而不是佛陀的教法为依据。无论如何,回想自己因为以前的导师使我们对禅修产生兴趣,我们还是应该感恩的。

我曾经在生活中经历这些事情。当我是在家人时,我也曾经练习禅修。那时,我以为所有的比库都在教导佛陀所教的法,所以我相信他们。作为在家人,我们想要的是成功、富裕和显要的地位,我们的目标是欲乐目标,求法只不过是短暂的追求,并不是优先考虑的事。我们没有办法区别何谓正确和错误,只是在有限的境况下学习导师所教的。因此,我不知道自己所修的是正确还是错误。当心中生起悚惧感时,我才决定选择过出家生活。那时,我出家的目的是要究竟灭苦。于是,我的目标完全改变了。我不再想要寻找得到名利的方法;反之,我的目标是寻找解脱的道路。因此,我必须了解什么是佛陀真正的教导。在那时,我才有机会研究佛陀的教法,因此可以把它们和之前所修的作出比较。最后我了解到什么是正确,什么是错误的。我很幸运。

如果不在僧团之中,不容易了解正确和错误教法以及正确和错误修行的微细差异。只有当我们进入僧团,才能够更深入了解佛法。因此,我的劝告是,深入学习佛陀教法,为你自己负起责任。你应该为自己的善益负起责任。

在很大程度上,我们受到自己出生环境的影响。如果生在美国,我可能会是基督教徒;如果生在伊拉克,我也许就会是回教徒;如果生在台湾,我几乎能肯定会是一位北传比丘。

由于生在缅甸,我成为一位上座部佛教的比库。这是我们需要了解的一点,不必去抱怨自己出生的环境。长大以后,我们就有足够的智力,凭着自己的努力去了解什么是真理。这是我们的责任。

我有许多弟子来自许多不同的国家,美国、德国、加拿大、日本。他们有些是在身为基督教徒的背景下长大,因为他们出生在基督教徒的环境。可是成年以后,他们有了思想的自由,凭着自身的才智,他们去学习这样或那样的。最后,在佛陀的教法中,他们找到自己的理想,因而选择了自己的道路。因此,重要的是,不要跟随传统,而是跟随佛陀真正的教法。事实就是如此。

摘自雷瓦达尊者SayadawRevata《诸佛所教之真谛》

“Differentiating Right Teaching from Wrong Teaching”

Before the Buddha attained final Nibbāna, His disciples asked Him how they might differentiate between right teaching and wrong teaching. The Buddha explained as follows: ‘Suppose a monk explained the Dhamma and then said, “What I am teaching all of you is what I heard directly from the Buddha.” Even if he were to say so, please do not be in a hurry to accept what he says, and do not be in a hurry to reject it. Compare his teachings with what I have taught in the Suttanta, in the Vinaya (the monastic discipline), and in the Abhidhamma. Only when you see that it is in accordance with what I have taught should you accept his teaching. If it is not in accordance with what I have taught, please reject it.’ Therefore, one needs to examine whether or not what a teacher tells one is really true. This is one’s own responsibility.

In the Buddha’s example, it was a monk who said, ‘What I am teaching all of you is what I heard directly from the Buddha.’ If his claim was true, then that monk had actually met with the Buddha. However, the Buddha said not to accept his words immediately even in this situation.

Nowadays there is no one who can claim to have met with the Buddha, so if someone does not respectfully teach the Dhamma, such a teacher may guide others in the wrong way. We must respect the Dhamma, we must respect the Buddha, and we must respect ourselves also. If we do not respect ourselves, we will do whatever we like. We must understand our standpoint. We have no Omniscient Knowledge, so we cannot teach just any way we like, because the teachings on the way leading to Nibbāna appeared because of the appearance of the Omniscient Buddha; if we do not teach His teachings, we are not acting for our own good or for the good of others. On the contrary, we are destroying ourselves as well as others. Therefore, we must always keep this advice in mind.
There are many teachers who, with no ill intent, fall short of teaching the Dhamma in all its fullness, or whose teaching is incorrect in some way or other. In other words, there are many teachers who do not teach the flawless Dhamma that was imparted to us by the Buddha. We should consider that such teachers teach according to their own abilities, limited as they may be, and that they themselves may not even be aware that what they are teaching is not in accordance with what the Buddha taught.

Nonetheless, we may very well be able to learn something from such teachers. We should learn, but we must also know how to discern whether or not to continue learning and practising under their guidance. Even though they cannot teach according to what the Buddha taught, and instead teach meditation by explaining and interpreting the words of the Buddha according to their own limited understanding, they still provide us with the opportunity to practise meditation. If they have no bad intentions, they are not doing anything bad. The main consideration is that we cannot reach the goal by following them; they can take us only so far along the Path.
We may have been drawn to these teachers because they were well-known and were admired by many people, ordained persons among them, and so we learned from them. Because of them we became interested in meditation and started to practise. Having had this opportunity, we get another opportunity later on which we can compare with the first. Then we come to know that our previous study and practice was according to the tradition of the teacher and not according to the teaching of the Buddha. We should nevertheless be grateful, recalling that our interest in meditation arose because of our former teachers.

I have had experience with these matters in my own life. When I was a lay person, I practised meditation. At the time, I thought that all bhikkhus taught what the Buddha Himself taught. I believed in them. As lay persons, we wanted to be successful and wealthy and prominent. Our goals were sensual goals. Seeking the Dhamma then was just a temporary pursuit; it was not our main priority. We lacked the means to distinguish between what was right and what was wrong; we had only the bare circumstances to learn what the teacher was teaching. Therefore, I didn’t know whether what I was practising was right or wrong.

Only when the sense of urgency arose in me did I decide to choose ordained life. At that point, my purpose in ordaining was to make an end of suffering. My goal completely changed. I was no longer set on finding the way to gain and fame; instead, my goal became finding the way to liberation. I therefore needed to find out what the Buddha actually taught. It was only then that I got the opportunity to study the teachings of the Buddha, so that I could compare them with what I had practised before. What was right and what was wrong became known to me at that time. I was very fortunate.

If we are outside of the order of the Saṅgha, it is not easy for us to understand the subtle differences between right and wrong teaching and between right and wrong practice.

It is only when we enter the order of the Saṅgha that we can know the Dhamma more deeply. My advice, therefore, is to deepen your study of the teachings of the Buddha and to take responsibility for yourself. You are responsible for your own goodness.

We are greatly influenced by the environment into which we are born. Had I been born in America, I might be a Christian. Had I been born in Iraq, I might be a Muslim. Had I been born in Taiwan, I would almost certainly have been a Mahāyana bhikkhu. Since I was born in Myanmar, I became a Theravāda bhikkhu. This is something we need to understand, and we do not need to complain about the environmental factors surrounding our birth. After we have grown up, we are intelligent enough to depend on our efforts to know what is true. This is our responsibility.

I have many disciples from many different countries from America, from Germany, from Canada, and from Japan. Some of them were raised as Christians because they were born into Christian environments. After they grew up, however, they had freedom to think; and being intelligent, they studied this and that. Finally they found what they wanted in the teachings of the Buddha, and then they chose their way accordingly. Therefore it is important not to follow traditions but to follow the true teachings of the Buddha. This is the fact.
Quote from < The Truth Taught by All the Buddhas>

弃尸林
注册用户
注册用户
帖子: 301
注册时间: 2019年 5月 31日 星期五 12:18 am

Re: 如何辨认正确和错误的教法

帖子 弃尸林 » 2020年 8月 1日 星期六 3:19 pm

四谛,是框架和指导。

初始三经中,转法轮经,是四谛框架,非我相经,燃烧以经,是苦谛。

大念处经,念身经,入出息经等诸念处经是道谛。

回复