修观的目的是证得十六观智

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修观的目的是证得十六观智

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十六观智

雷瓦达尊者

修观的目的是证得十六观智。第一观智是名色限定智 (Nāmarūpa-pariccheda-ñāṇa),较常被译为名色识别智或名色分别智。第二观智是缘摄受智(Paccaya-pariggaha-ñāṇa)。

前两个观智与前两种圣谛有关。如果已经成功辨识究竟名色法,就是知见了第一圣谛而因此证得第一观智;没有辨识究竟名色法,就不能证得第一观智。没有知见究竟名色法, 也不可能知见第二圣谛。除非已了知究竟名色法,否则就没有能力辨识过去的名色;在这种情况下,也就不能到达母胎里初始的阶段,或者检查是谁在过去生造了某种业,或者确定临终时刻出现的所缘。同样的,如果已经辨识业及其果报,也即是第二圣谛,就证得了缘摄受智——第二个观智。以这两种修证,禅修者即可以准备开始修观。

第三观智是思惟智(Sammasana-ñāṇa),这意味着要照见究竟名色法的生起和灭去。为证得这个智慧,行者须一再地 随观内、外、过去、现在、未来五组法为无常、苦和无我。 在辨识这些组别里的究竟名法时,应该观照善与不善这两种心路。

透过辨识六处色法,内、外、过去、现在、未来的色法, 禅修者从随观色法的生灭开始。他会观察到,由于色法在生灭,它是无常的;由于它一直遭受生灭(的逼迫),因此它是苦的;还有,由于它是根据因缘而生灭,没有人能够叫它生起或不生起,灭去或不灭去,它不受任何人的控制,因此它是无我的。他需要反复练习随观每一种相。

然后,继续以同样的方式随观名法的三相,观照内、外、 过去、现在、未来的善与不善名法,一门接一门的心路这样去观照。

接着,需要继续同时观照名色。每一个心识刹那都有它的依处和所缘,这两者是色法;每一个心识刹那都有心与心所,这两者是名法。以此方式,可以同时见到名色。从五组的善与不善名色中,观察它们的迅速生灭,再随观它们为无常、苦和无我。思惟智还有很多其他所缘,要解释这些最好是当你在一位导师指导下禅修之时。

第四个观智是生灭智(Udayabbaya-ñāṇa),首先着重于观照行法的生起——由于这个生起,所以那个生起。然后着重于观照行法的坏灭——由于这个灭去,所以那个灭去。之后是生灭两者——由于这个生起,所以那个生起;由于这个灭去,所以那个灭去。接着需要随观因及其果的无常、苦和无我。

第五个观智是坏灭智(Bhaṅga-ñāṇa)。主要是以观照坏灭为重点,所以在那时可以不注意生起,因为在这一刻的观智已经变得更加成熟了。透过只是专注在坏灭上,观智会越来越成熟。观察五组的善与不善法持续不断地坏灭,以致名色随时看来皆是如此。在坐着、站着、走着和躺着的四威仪中, 保持如理作意地观察坏灭,这种观察会导致第六观智——怖畏智(Bhaya-ñāṇa)生起。见到一切行法持续不断地坏灭,怖畏 感会生起,怖畏感让观智更进一步成熟。这种怖畏不是根植 于瞋的畏惧感,而是类似一种(修行上的)迫切感或悚惧感, 它是由于有所领会而生起,是与智慧相应的。

继续随观五组的善与不善法的无常、苦和无我,最后, 第七个观智——过患智(Ādīnava-ñāṇa)会生起。持续辨识一切行法不断地生灭导致禅修者见到它们的危险。当时的观智已经更加成熟了。以同样的方式继续观照,将会证得厌离智 (Nibbidā-ñāṇa),这是第八个观智。过后,第九个观智,欲解 脱智(Muñcitu-kamyatā-ñāṇa)将会生起,因为已开始深深地、 迫切地希望从有为法中解脱。那时,禅修者会很想得到解脱。

没有所有这些观智的支持,一个人如何可以解脱?一旦见到一切行法都在持续不断地坏灭,于是便见到了它们所隐 藏的危险而生起怖畏感,直至最后想要从中解脱。于是,心力变得很强大,法驱使一个人朝向解脱的方向。

继续以上述的方法修习直至审察智(Paṭisaṅkhā-ñāṇa)生起。在此,各种不同的省思会生起,例如:“这些法持续不断在坏灭。”最后禅修者领会到,如果有如此生灭的法,或 者一直坏灭的法,也必定有一种境界是没有有为法生起或灭去的。他想要证得那种境界。没有见到[有为法的生灭],无法想象也不会省思到有一种没有有为法生灭的境界。见到 后,才能领会到:如果有生灭,就会有不生灭的境界。这时, 禅修者开始付出更大的精进力,直至最后证得第十一个观智。

这是行舍智(Saṅkhārupekkhā-ñāṇa)。一旦证得第十一个观智,就没有怖畏感了,心变得非常锐利,也能够如实地接受一切。这种智慧非常强而有力。为了能够达到此观智,需 要一步步地循序渐进。首先,见到行法的过患和危险;然后生起怖畏而不想见到它们;最后,心变得非常强而有力,非常殊胜,因为对行法能保持中舍而证得了行舍智。以这种心的状态,禅修者可以安住在所缘上。这是非常接近道智的智慧。

摘自《诸佛所教之真谛》

#SayadawRevata

“The Sixteen Insight Knowledges”

The purpose of vipassanā practice is to attain the sixteen Insight Knowledges. The first Insight Knowledge is Nāmarūpa-pariccheda-ñāṇa, Mentality-Materiality Definition Knowledge, more often translated as the Knowledge of Discerning Ultimate Mentality and Materiality. The second Insight Knowledge is Paccaya-pariggaha-ñāṇa, the Cause-Apprehending Knowledge.

These first two Insight Knowledges relate to the first two Noble Truths. If one has successfully discerned ultimate mentality and materiality, one knows and sees the First Noble Truth and thereby attains the first Insight Knowledge. Without discerning ultimate mentality and materiality, one does not attain the first Insight Knowledge, and it is impossible to know and see the Second Noble Truth without knowing and seeing ultimate mentality and materiality. Unless one knows ultimate mentality and materiality, one will be unable to discern the nāma and rūpa of the past. In such a case, one cannot reach the beginning stage in the womb, or check who was doing a certain kamma in a past life, or determine the object that appeared at the near-death moment. In the same way, if one has discerned kamma and its result, which is the Second Noble Truth, one has attained the Knowledge of Discerning Cause and Effect, the second Insight Knowledge. With these two attainments, one is ready to start vipassanā.

The third Insight Knowledge is Sammasana-ñāṇa, Compre- hension Knowledge. This means seeing the arising and perishing of ultimate mentality and materiality. To attain this Knowledge, one contemplates impermanence, suffering, and non-self over and over again in the five categories of internal, external, past, present, and future. For the discernment of ultimate mentality within these categories, one should contemplate both wholesome and unwhole- some mental processes.

One begins with contemplating the arising and perishing of rūpa by discerning internally and externally, for each of the six sense-bases, past, present, and future. One observes that, since rūpa is arising and perishing, it is impermanent; since it is subject to arising and perishing all the time, it is suffering; and since it arises and perishes according to causes and conditions, so that no one can tell it to arise or not to arise, or to perish or not to perish, it is beyond anyone’s control, and therefore it is non-self. This contemplation must be done repeatedly for each characteristic.

Then one moves on to contemplate the three characteristics in nāma in the same way, in the categories of internal, external, past, present, and future, for both wholesome and unwholesome, door by door.

One then needs to continue on and contemplate nāma and rūpa together. Every mind moment has its base and object; these two are rūpa. Every mind moment has citta and cetasika, or consciousness and associated mental factors; these two are nāma. In this way one can see both nāma and rūpa together. One observes them rapidly arising and perishing and so discerns impermanence, suffering, and non-self in both nāma and rūpa together in the five categories for both wholesome and unwholesome. There are many other objects for Comprehension Knowledge, but they are best explained when one practises under the guidance of a teacher.

The fourth Insight Knowledge is Udayabbaya-ñāṇa, the Knowledge of Arising and Perishing. First one emphasises the arising of phenomena, udaya – because this arises, that arises. Then one emphasises the perishing of phenomena, vaya – because this ceases, that ceases. Then comes Uday- abbaya, both udaya and vaya together – because this arises, that arises; because this ceases, that ceases. Then one needs to contemplate impermanence, suffering, and non- self in causes and their effects.

The fifth Insight Knowledge is Bhaṅga-ñāṇa, Dissolution Knowledge. One’s emphasis here is mainly on the perishing, so one ignores the arising at that time, because one’s insight knowledge is becoming more mature at this point. By focussing on just the perishing, one’s insight knowledge will mature even more. One observes constant perishing of nāma and rūpa in the five categories for both wholesome and unwholesome, so that all nāma and rūpa appear the same at all times. With wise attention, one observes per- ishing in all four postures – sitting, standing, walking, and lying down. One’s observation gives rise to the sixth Insight Knowledge, which is Bhaya-ñāṇa, Fearsome Knowledge. In seeing the constant perishing of all phenomena, one grows fearful, and the fear makes one’s insight knowledge mature further. This fear is not the unwholesome fear rooted in dosa (aversion) but instead is similar to a sense of urgency; it arises out of understanding and is associated with wisdom.

One continues to contemplate impermanence, suffering, and non-self in the five categories for both wholesome and unwholesome. Eventually the seventh Insight Knowledge, Ādīnava-ñāṇa or Danger Knowledge, will arise. The unremitting discernment of all phenomena incessantly arising and perishing causes one to see the danger in them. One’s insight knowledge has matured even more. Continuing on in the same way, one attains Nibbidā-ñāṇa, Disenchant- ment Knowledge, which is the eighth Insight Knowledge. Then the ninth Insight Knowledge, Muñcitu-kamyatā-ñāṇa or Liberation-Longing Knowledge, will arise, because one begins to long deeply for liberation from the conditioned dhamma that are arising in one. One wants to be liberated at that time.

Without the support of all these Insight Knowledges, how can one be liberated? However, once one sees that all phenomena are constantly perishing, one then sees the danger inherent in them and feels fear as a consequence, until finally one wants to be liberated from them. One’s mental power then becomes strong, and Dhamma drives one in the direction of liberation.

One continues practising in the aforementioned way until Paṭisaṅkhā-ñāṇa or Reflection Knowledge arises. Here different kinds of reflections may arise, such as, ‘These phenomena are constantly perishing.’ One comes to understand that, if there are dhamma that arise and perish in this way, or dhamma that are perishing all the time, there must be a state where there is no arising or perishing of conditioned phenomena. One wants to attain that state. Without seeing, one can neither imagine nor reflect that there is a state where there is no arising and perishing of conditioned phenomena. By seeing, however, one understands that, if there is arising and perishing, there will be a state where there is no arising and perishing. At this point one begins to make greater effort, until finally one attains the eleventh Insight Knowledge.

This is Saṅkhārupekkhā-ñāṇa, Formations Equanimity Knowledge. Once this eleventh Insight Knowledge is attained, one has no fear, and one’s mind is very sharp. One can accept everything as it is. Such knowledge is very powerful. To be able to reach it, one must proceed one step after another. First, one sees the fault and danger of phenomena; then one fears them and does not want to see them; finally, one’s mind becomes very strong and superior, because one attains equanimity towards formations. With this state of mind, one can stay with the object. This is very close to Path Knowledge.

Quote from < The Truth Taught by All the Buddhas>
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