依法不依人 Depend on the Dhamma

Practice of Dana & sila(precepts) & Meditation,etc.
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Ashoka
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注册时间: 2019年 1月 7日 星期一 1:02 am

依法不依人 Depend on the Dhamma

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依法不依人

#雷瓦达尊者

在佛陀给予弟子们忠告的例子中,那位自称教导“法”的是一位比库,同时也自称曾经从佛陀口中听受教导。然而,作为实相的体现或源头,人和法本身是有差别的。这两者之中,佛陀更重视法。可是,在实际情况下,人们一般上比较重视人。如果听到如此这般的一位导师很出名,他们便去亲近那个人。他们被那名望和声誉所吸引,在他们眼中,那就是好的。

这是他们了解的层面;就大多数人而言,这是世界的趋势。但在另一方面,我们必须要让自己有所提升。形成这种局面的原因是,人们在开始时并不知道法,也没有见到法;他们首先见到的是人。如果一位导师有名望,有很多同伴和追随者,人们也想追随他们。这是普遍发生的现象。假如我们所亲近的导师,很有名望也有很多追随者,固然相当合情理也是好的,但是,我们必须以尊重的态度去观察和了解,到底这位导师的教导是否以佛陀教法为依据。如果是符合佛陀教法的,那么是的,我们一定要遵循——但即便如此,我们所遵循的应该不是人而是法。如果遇到与佛陀教法有冲突的,我们一定要坦然的承认这个事实。我们一定要勇敢地接受法,也一定要勇敢地舍弃非法。这是佛陀的忠告。

然而,我们需要有正确的心态。我们从小就有很多老师,他们教了我们很多善法。他们教我们如何行布施、持戒和禅修,他们曾经给我们灌输了许多善法。可是无论如何,解脱是一条趣向涅槃之道,这并不是每个人都能教的。有些导师强调佛陀教法中的教理(pariyatti)知识,所以他们从教理中获得了大量的知识,可是却对实际修行没有太多认识。若我们向这些导师学习,他们可能就根据本身的理解能力去讲解;这是无可厚非的,我们没有理由纯粹因为他们不一定有足够善巧而批评他们。当发现有必要在这种情况下“舍弃非法”时,不应该怀着瞋怒之心,只是抱着如理作意的态度去处理。这是重要的。

由于他们所拥有的一切良善素质,我们应该亲近他们,可是,对于他们无能为力的一面,我们也应该懂得撤退。唯有如此做,才会有正面的思惟和正确的心态,既不伤害自己,也不伤害他人。

有关这点,我们应该学习沙利子(Sāriputta,舍利弗)尊者和马哈摩嘎喇那(Mahāmoggallāna,目犍连)尊者的榜样。这两位尊者都不是以佛陀为他们的启蒙老师,他们首先是跟一位著名的导师修行,可是在听闻到佛陀的教法时,他们成了圣者。

他们很正确地抱着以下的想法:“我们感恩自己的导师。我们一定要执行善友应执行的义务。”我们都一定要成为自己的父母亲、兄弟姐妹、跟随者以及导师们的善友。当沙利子尊者和马哈摩嘎喇那尊者决定要在佛陀座下修行时,他们想起之前的导师,山吒亚悲喇他子 (Sañjaya Belatthiputta),因而商议:“我们的导师很有智慧,我们应该让他认识佛陀的正法。”之后他们便来到前任导师面前说:“导师,一切知佛陀已经出世,他正在演说正法,很多人在他引导下获得了证悟。导师,您也应该亲近他,在他座下修行。”

可是,山吒亚悲喇他子却回答:“所有智者会去亲近佛陀,愚人将会来我这里。不必担心。”他们就此完成了身为弟子的义务。我们一定要做我们所需要做的;最后是由我们的师长和父母来决定,我们无法干预了。我们所需要做的,是成为他们,也成为所有与我们相遇的人的善友。在这世间,愚人的数量是超过智者的;因此,山吒亚悲喇他子说:“你们不必担心。世界上有很多愚人,他们会来我这里。”在此能清楚看到,有时要放弃对不是很有价值的事物的执着,也非常困难;是因为我们的烦恼,由烦恼引起的好恶对我们起着极大的影响。

很幸运的,从小我就是一位很好的观察者。当遇到和我同龄以及年龄比我大很多的人时,我发现,不是所有老年人都是有智慧或通情达理的。我也发现,即使是少年人,尽管年纪小小,有时也很有智慧和通情达理。最后我了解到,智慧并不取决于年龄。因此,我从来无法纯粹因为一个人的年尊辈长或名声远播就生起信心;反之,我需要花一些时间去评估那个人。所以,我是幸运的。如果你想要,你也可以这么做。

因此,我的劝告是:依靠法,不要依靠人。无论导师是谁,也不要依靠导师而是依靠法。法是可靠的,但人会改变;法从来不会改变。一个人可以毒害他人,可是法绝对不会毒害任何人。所以,依法不要依人。如果你遇到一位教授法的人,你暂时可以依靠他,这是最好的。可是,如果你看到那个人改变了,你就需要小心;你需要成为好的观察者。法和人需要区分开来。

摘自《诸佛所教之真谛》


“Depend on the Dhamma, Not the Person”

#SayadawRevata

In the advice the Buddha gave to His disciples in this matter, the one who is claiming to teach the truth is a monk who also claims to have heard and received that teaching from the Buddha’s own lips. Yet as an embodiment or source of truth, there is a difference between a person and the Dhamma itself. Of these two, the Buddha accorded more importance to the Dhamma. However, in actual practice people in general accord more importance to the person. If they hear that such and such a teacher is very famous, they approach that person; they see the attraction of fame and renown. This is what they see; this is the way the world goes, in the case of most people. We on the other hand must work to improve ourselves.

The reason for this state of affairs is that people do not know and do not see the Dhamma initially; they see the person first. If a teacher is well known and has a lot of companions and followers, people also want to follow.

This is the way it is happening. It may be quite reasonable and good if the teacher we approach is well known and has a lot of followers, but we need to observe respectfully and learn whether or not what such a teacher teaches is in accordance with the Buddha’s teachings. If it is in accordance with the teachings of the Buddha, then yes, we must follow – but even then, what we should follow is not the person but the Dhamma. If one encounters teachings that conflict with the teachings of the Buddha, we must honestly acknowledge the fact of the matter.We must have the courage to accept the truth, and we must courageously reject non-truth. This is the advice of the Buddha.

Nonetheless, we need to be right minded. We may have had many teachers since we were young, and they have taught us many good things. They taught us how to make offerings and practise morality and meditate. They have bestowed on us many good things. Liberation, however, is the way leading to Nibbāna, and it is not something everyone can teach. Some teachers emphasise the teachings of the Buddha in the form of pariyatti, learning knowledge, so that they have a great deal of knowledge acquired through learning but do not have much knowledge of actual practice. If we learn from these teachers, they may explain things on the basis of what they understand; there is nothing wrong with that. There is no reason for us to criticise them just because they are not necessarily skilful.

When one finds it necessary to ‘reject non-truth’ in such a situation, it should be done not with anger but with wise attention. This is important. One should approach them for all the goodness they have, yet one should also withdraw from them for what they cannot do. Only in acting thus will one have positive thinking and be right minded.

Then one will not harm oneself, nor will one harm others. In these matters we should emulate Venerable Sāriputta and Venerable Mahāmoggallāna, neither of whom had learned from the Buddha from the outset. They practised under a certain well-known teacher at first, but when they heard the teachings of the Buddha, they became Noble Ones. They rightly held the following view: ‘We are grateful to our teacher. We must practise the way good friends practise.’ All of us must be good friends to our parents, our brothers and sisters, our followers, and our teachers as well.

When Venerable Sāriputta and Venerable Mahāmoggallāna resolved to practise under the Buddha, they remembered their former teacher, Sañjaya Belatthiputta, and said to themselves, ‘Our teacher is wise. We should introduce the true teachings of the Buddha to him.’ Then they approached their former teacher and said to him, ‘Teacher, the Omniscient Buddha has arisen in the world. He teaches the true Dhamma. Many have become enlightened under His guidance. Teacher, you also should approach Him and practise under His guidance.’ However,Sañjaya Belatthiputta replied, ‘All the wise will go to the Buddha. The fools will come to me. Do not worry.’ In this way they accomplished their duties as disciples. We must do what we need to do; the final decision will be made by our teachers, our elders, and our parents themselves, and it is not our concern. All we need to do is be a good friend to all of them, and to all the people we meet.

In this world, the foolish outnumber the wise; hence Sañjaya Belatthiputta said, ‘You do not need to worry. There are a lot of fools in the world. They will come to me.’ Here it is clear how very difficult it is sometimes to give up one’s attachment even to something that is not very valuable; because of our defilements, we are strongly influenced by the likes and dislikes caused by our defilements.
I am very fortunate in that, since I was young, I have been a very good observer. When I met with people of my own age and people who were very much older than I, I came to know that not all old people are wise or reasonable. I also came to know that even young people could sometimes be wise and reasonable despite their few years. I came to know that wisdom does not depend on age.
Therefore, I could never feel confident simply because of a person’s seniority in age or reputation; I would need to take time to assess the person instead. So I am fortunate.

If you like, you can also do the same. My advice, therefore, is to depend on the Dhamma, not on the person. No matter who the teacher is, do not depend on the teacher, but depend on the Dhamma instead.

The Dhamma is reliable, whereas a person is changeable. The Dhamma will never change. A person can poison others, but the Dhamma will never poison anyone. Depend on the Dhamma, then, and not on the person. Best of all, a person who imparts the Dhamma is someone on whom you can rely for the time being. If, however, you see the person change, you need to take care; you need to be a good observer. The Dhamma and the person need to be distinguished one from the other.

Quote from < The Truth Taught by All the Buddhas>
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