四界差别观 Four Elements Meditation

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四界差别观 Four Elements Meditation

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四界差别观

雷瓦达尊者

现在重述四界的特相。地界有六种特相:硬、粗、重、 软、滑和轻。水界有两种特相:流动和黏结。火界也有两种特相:热和冷。最后,风界也是有两种特相:推动和支持。 总共有十二个特相是禅修者需要系统地辨识的。

当我们教导四界差别时,我们教导禅修者从比较容易辨识的特相开始,接着再继续辨识比较困难的。之后,再改换成佛陀教导的次序,即刚刚列举出来的:地、水、火、风。 这是佛陀教导的次序。我不会在这里讲解修习四界差别的细,当你实际修习时再解释会更有利益。

如果禅修者系统地辨识四界,将会见到个人的定力在提 升。当定力提升时,[禅修者感觉]身体消失了,所见到的只是一个四界的体块,不再见到脸、手或脚。在这时候,有情想会消失。这意味着禅修者已经在某种程度上证得正见。

如果禅修者继续在那四界的体块里辨识这十二个特相, 定力将进一步提升,身体会散发光芒——从灰色的光开始, 它逐渐变白,直至最后全身成为一个光亮的体块。那光亮的体块其实只是由许多色聚聚集而成。在它还没有粉碎成细小 的色聚前,禅修者会见到它们是一组聚合;因为每一粒色聚都有颜色,所以它们看来是一个光亮的体块。

禅修者需要继续辨识那个光亮体块里的四界,以便将它粉碎成极微的色聚。如果他持续辨识那个光亮体块里的四界,最后它会粉碎成非常小的微粒——色聚。在尝试将光亮体块粉碎成非常小的色聚时,有些禅修者可能会遇到困难, 在那种情况下,导师会指导他们去注意空界。空界的作用是作为一种界限,它是色聚与色聚之间的空间。当禅修者见到空界时,光亮的体块即分解,之后就会见到非常细小的色聚。 佛陀说,这整个世界是由极微的色聚组成。当光亮的体块分解而见到色聚后,如果禅修者正和许多其他人一起禅 修,他可以辨识坐在附近或远处的人的四界,他将见到每个人就只是色聚。他不再见到男人、女人或其他任何事物,一切都变得一样——只是极微的色聚一直在非常迅速地生起和灭去。若去辨识地板、自己坐的坐垫、佛像或任何其他所缘, 一切都变成极微的色聚。一切皆如是。

禅修者所见的一切,无论高山、树木、花朵、有情或是非有情,都变得一样——只是不断生灭的色聚,别无其他。 当这种情况发生时,我们就会同意佛陀所说的,停止和佛陀争论或怀疑佛陀。有时我们会倾向于要和佛陀争论:这里我们见到男人,这里我们见到女人,为什么佛陀说没有男人、 没有女人呢?有啊!为什么佛陀说男人和女人并不真的存 在,只有究竟法?有时我们会这样想。无论如何,证得正定和观智的人可亲自照见没有男人、没有女人、没有树木、没 有高山、没有佛像;反之,只有非常小的色聚。当见到这一 点时,人们就会和佛陀持相同见解了。

这些不是我所说的话,是佛陀自己亲口所说:“我不与世间争;只是世间与我争。”世人敢于和佛陀争论只因世人的盲目。唯有当人们达到真实的知见时,他们就不再敢和佛陀争论了。佛陀能了知超越肉眼所及之现象。如果你培育起定力,然后系统地修习四界差别,你将能知见佛陀的教导。 无论如何,这些色聚还不是究竟色法。它们仍然只是最小的概念,它们是色聚——色法的组合。究竟色法是组成每 一粒色聚的色法,它们包括地、水、火、风、色、香、味、 食素、命根和净色等等。为了了解究竟色法,禅修者需要在 个别的色聚中分析这些色法。

譬如,以我曾经叙述的方式辨识眼睛里的色法,禅修者将会发现时节生色聚、食生色聚和心生色聚,只有八种究竟色法直至食素,它们是八法聚。可是,眼十法聚有十种色法。 禅修者需要一一地辨识它们。他们也需要辨识身十法聚和性根十法聚里的十种究竟色法,因为它们是眼睛里七类色聚中的两类。

摘自《诸佛所教之真谛》

#SayadawRevata
“Four Elements Meditation“

The characteristics of the four elements were mentioned above, but they bear repeating here. Earth element has six characteristics: hardness, roughness, heaviness, softness, smoothness, and lightness. The water element has two: flowing and cohesion. The fire element also has two: heat and cold. Lastly, the wind element has two characteristics as well: pushing and supporting. There are altogether twelve characteristics which the meditator needs to discern systematically. When we teach four elements meditation, we teach meditators to start with the characteristics that are easiest to discern and then to progress to the more difficult ones. After that, we change to the order taught by the Buddha, which is the way I have just listed them: earth, water, fire, and wind. This is the order taught by the Buddha. I will not explain here the many details of how to practise four elements meditation; such an explanation is of more benefit when one actually practises.

If one discerns four elements systematically, one will see an improvement in one’s concentration. When concentration improves, the body disappears. One sees just a block of four elements; one’s whole body becomes just a block of four elements. One does not see a face, a hand, or a leg. At this point the perception of being, satta-saññā, disappears. This means the meditator has attained right view to a certain extent.

If one continues discerning these twelve characteristics in that block of four elements, concentration further improves, and the body will emit light – beginning with grey light, which gradually becomes white, until finally the whole body becomes a block of bright light. That block of bright light is actually just a group of rūpa kalāpas. It has not been broken down into small particles, so the meditator sees them as a group; and because there is colour in every kalāpa, they are perceived as a block of bright light.

Now one needs to continue discerning four elements in that block of bright light in order to break it down into very tiny particles. If one continues discerning four elements in that block of bright light, it will finally break down into very small particles, which might be called sub-atomic particles. Some meditators may encounter difficulty when they try to break the block of bright light down into very small sub-atomic particles. In that case, they are instructed to see the space element (ākāsadhātu). The space element functions as a sort of border line; it is the space between rūpa kalāpas. When the meditator looks at the space element, the block of light will dissolve, and the meditator will then see very tiny particles.

The Buddha said that this whole world is made up of very tiny sub-atomic particles. If the block of light dissolves while one is practising together with many other practitioners, one can discern four elements in those who are sitting nearby or far away, and one will see everyone be-come nothing more than small particles. One does not see man or woman or anything else; everything becomes the same – just very tiny particles which are arising and perishing very rapidly all the time. If one discerns four elements in the floor or the cushion on which one is sitting or a Buddha statue or any other object, everything becomes very small particles. Everything becomes the same.

Whether one regards mountains, trees, flowers, living things, or non-living things, everything becomes the same - nothing more than tiny particles that constantly arise and perish. When this happens, one will agree with the Buddha and cease to disagree with or doubt Him. Sometimes we are inclined to disagree with the Buddha. Here we see men, here we see women; why then did the Buddha say there are no men, there are no women? There are! Why did the Buddha say that men and women do not really exist, and that there is only ultimate reality? We think this way sometimes. However, with the attainment of concentration and insight, one sees for oneself that there are no men, no women, no trees, no mountains, no Buddha im- ages; instead, there are only very small particles. When one sees this, one will agree with the Buddha.

These are not my words. The Buddha Himself says, ‘I do not argue with the world; it is the world that argues with me.’ The world dares to argue with the Buddha because the world is blind. Only when people arrive at a true understanding will they no longer dare to argue with the Bud- dha. The Buddha is the One Who knew what lies beyond the scope of the naked eye. If one develops concentration and then practises four elements meditation systematically, one will know and will see what the Buddha taught.

However, these tiny particles are not yet ultimate materiality. They are still just the smallest concepts; they are rūpa kalāpas, materiality groups. Ultimate materiality is the rūpa or materiality that comprises every individual kalāpa, namely, earth, water, fire, wind, colour, smell, taste, nutritive essence, life faculty, sensitivity, and so forth. In order to understand ultimate materiality, one needs to ana- lyse these rūpa in each rūpa kalāpa.

In discerning materiality in the eye, for example, in the way I have been describing, one will find that temperature-born, nutriment-born, and mind-born rūpa kalāpas have only eight ultimate materialities, up to nutritive essence. They are octad kalāpas. However, the eye decad kalāpa has ten factors. The meditator needs to discern these one by one. The insight practitioner likewise needs to discern the ten kinds of ultimate materiality in the body decad kalāpa and the sex decad kalāpa, since they are two of the seven kinds of rūpa kalāpas in the eye.

Quote from <The Truth Taught by All the Buddhas>
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