立泰王的《三界论》

Pāli Tipitaka & Commentaries & History of Buddhism
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立泰王的《三界论》

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泰国历史上著名的仁慈之王,立泰王著了一部《三界论》,有哪位师兄知道有没有英文版或者中文版,可否提供一份?
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Re: 立泰王的《三界论》Traiphum Phra Ruang

帖子 nanadipa »

昙摩罗阇一世(泰语:ธรรมราชาที่ ๑,生年不详-1368年),又称摩诃昙摩罗阇一世(มหาธรรมราชาที่ ๑),本名立泰(ลิไทย),或译律泰,他是素可泰王国帕銮王朝君主,约1347年至1368年间在位。昙摩罗阇一世是前任国王威南童的堂侄。昙摩罗阇一世爱好和平,虔心佛事,南方的阿瑜陀耶王国在其任内崛起。

立泰是素可泰国王乐泰之子,乐泰逝后,立泰的堂叔威南童继位。立泰被威南童立为王储,并受任为是塞差那莱总督。1347年,立泰继位为王。据说其为了争夺王位,不得不与叛党作战,尽诛其众。此时的素可泰王国,只保有素可泰、甘烹碧、彭世洛、披集、那空沙旺诸城,对帕、楠、琅勃拉邦等地只有名义上的宗主权。

立泰虔诚于佛教,因此有昙摩罗阇或摩诃昙摩罗阇的称号,分别意为“法王”和“大法王”。他邀请锡兰僧侣至素可泰传授佛法,广建佛寺、佛塔、佛像,彭世洛的帕·西·拉丹那玛哈他寺(วัดพระศรีรัตนมหาธาตุ)、曼谷戍塔寺中的帕·西·释迦摩尼像(พระศรีศากยมุนี)即是这时期的作品。立泰潜心研究佛典,曾著有一本《帕銮三界》(Tri-Bhumi Phra Ruang)阐述佛教的世界观。据说立泰也精通天文学,曾改造历法,在宫中开学府授业。

昙摩罗阇一世疏濬运河,在王都素可泰与甘烹碧及陶业重镇宋加洛间修筑驰道。据当时的碑文记载,昙摩罗阇一世爱民如子,广受人民爱戴。他常赦免罪犯,赐金遣归。据说昙摩罗阇一世当政之时,素可泰境内没有奴隶,百姓皆享有自由。他的仁慈之名远播,四方之民都来归顺。昙摩罗阇一世爱好和平,但曾多次被迫作战,对于俘虏他往往善待之。

南方新起的强权阿瑜陀耶王国的乌通王曾趁乱犯境,攻占边城猜纳。昙摩罗阇一世却无意兴兵对抗,他只遣使请求乌通王归还猜纳。乌通王熟虑后归还了此城,双方此后保持了相对和睦的关系。昙摩罗阇一世崩逝于约1368年,其子依然以昙摩罗阇为称号,史称昙摩罗阇二世。

《三界论》(Traiphum Phra Ruang ("three worlds by Phra Ruang")书名。以泰语撰述的佛教宇宙论。系泰国素可泰朝国王立泰王(Lithai)所撰,成书于西元1345年。本书是泰国民众佛教的圣典,直至十九世纪之前,一直是泰人获取佛教知识的主要来源。有各种版本。原文题为Traiphum,意指欲界、色界、无色界等三界,内容主要在描写众生因种种行为所导致的生存状态,力劝人们去恶向善。

谷歌PLAY 电子书(Traiphum Phra Ruang)

Three Worlds According to King Ruang.jpg
Three Worlds According to King Ruang.jpg (26.59 KiB) 查看 515 次
亚马逊购书(Three Worlds According to King Ruang: A Thai Buddhist Cosmology (Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series 4) (English and Thai Edition) (Thai))

Traibhumikatha Compilation
Traibhūmikathā / Tebhūmikathā ไตรภูมิกถา / เตภูมิกถา Three Worlds of Phra Ruang
Traibhumikatha_Compilation.pdf
(404.11 KiB) 已下载 48 次
View of Three Worlds According to King Ruang_ Thai Buddhist Cosmology (Frank E. Reynolds & Mani B. Reynolds)
Three Worlds of Phra Ruang.JPG
Three Worlds of Phra Ruang.JPG (81.64 KiB) 查看 515 次

Nice PDF presentation with colour paintings from Thai temples illustrating the Three Worlds

Traibhūmikathā/Tebhūmikathā - Three Worlds

Traibhūmikathā/Tebhūmikathā ไตรภูมิกถา/เตภูมิกถา

te/trai = three, triple
bhūmi = plane, level, sphere
kathā = talk, discussion

Note: it should read กถา (kathā) instead of คาถา (gāthā), which means "verses"

ไตรภูมิคาถา (3D animation - very nice)

代码: 全选

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylaZvvO3gag
บันทึก ไตรภูมิ (cartoon, shorter version, also nice)

代码: 全选

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WJcY2PVkHg
ไตรภูมิพระร่วง (slideshow of the main contents)

代码: 全选

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lriHpL99ww
ไตรภูมิพระร่วง ตอน มนุสสภูมิ (overview with text)

代码: 全选

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ePpUo8qBAQ
ไตรภูมิกถา หรือ ไตรภูมิพระร่วง
http://buddhism.hum.ku.ac.th/topics/trai_bhumi.htm


English translation:

Frank E. Reynolds: Three Worlds According To King Ruang, a Thai Buddhist Cosmology. Berkeley 1982.

In the 14th century, the heir apparent to the throne of the central Thai kingdom completed the first truly literary work of a Thai author. Phya Lithai entitled his work Sermon on the Three Worlds but it later became known as Three Worlds of King Ruang. It is the culmination of a long history of visionary and cosmological literature within the Theravada tradition, representing in a vivid and concise form, the religious universe within which Thai Buddhists have traditionally lived. In particular, the description of death and the fates which await beings who die in the thirty-one realms of the Three Worlds portray the process of dying and depict the relative absence of suffering and pollution at high levels of attainment.Because of the prestige of its author, its claim to orthodox authority and its strong popular appeal, this text exerted a powerful influence on the religious consciousness of the Thai, on their literary and artistic development and on their social and ethical attitudes. Despite harsh criticisms to which the texts have been subjected by a number of Buddhist modernists in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, this influence has persisted to the present day. Thus, not only from a buddhological point of view, but also from a historical or anthropological perspective, it is no exaggeration to say that the Three Worlds of King Ruang is the most important and fascinating text that has been composed in the Thai language.

http://www.amazon.com/Three-Worlds-Acco ... 0895811537

http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/ojs/ ... /8586/2493

Creation Myth in 'Three Worlds According to King Ruang': A Teaching of Buddhist Philosophy
by Suchitra Chongstitvatana

The ‘creation’ myth in the text is found in the chapter concerning the destruction of the Mahakappa, explaining the cosmic destruction by the fire, water and wind. After the destruction, the text describes the cosmic devolution and the devolution of society. It is found that the text explains the ‘natural’ cycle of creation and destruction. The most interesting aspect is the explanation of the ‘origin’ of human beings and society. According to the text, human beings have in fact the 'divine' origin. The details of the 'creation myth' in this Buddhist cosmology reflect a significant evidence that the myth is employed ultimately for the purpose of teaching Buddha Dhamma. Firstly, the myth focuses on the 'divine' origin of human beings and nature so as to enhance the faith in the concept of 'merit'. By practising Dhamma, all beings could attain a state of 'divinity' and otherworldly qualities. This reflects the 'humanistic' dimension of Buddhist philosophy. Second, by emphasising 'virtues' as the 'norm' for the status of the leader of kings, the text is functioning as a didactic text for the readers. Thirdly, the myth also serves as enhancement of the faith in the supreme bliss of Enlightenment or Nibbana. The myth obviously illustrated how human defilements are the cause of human suffering and hardship in life and significantly the 'cause' of the loss of their 'divinity' and 'magical power'. Moreover, the myth reflects the impermanence of all the cosmos, the cycle of creations or destructions, and therefore emphasises the most desirable goal of Nibbana where the cycle of impermanence or suffering ends.

Nice PDF presentation with colour paintings from Thai temples illustrating the Three Worlds:
SEM11_Presentacion_Chongstitvatana.pdf

The political and social aspect of the text remaining in SE Asia until today:
The Theravāda Buddhist Engagement With Modernity In Southeast Asia: Whither the Social Paradigm of the Galactic Polity?

“Cosmology as Described in the Trai Phum Phra Ruang”

By Dr. Sumalai Ganwiboon

The Trai Phum Phra Ruang or the Three Worlds according to King Ruang was the most important element of Thai Buddhism for at least five hundred years. It was regarded to be almost as important as the Pāli Tipitaka. The three worlds are: (i) the sensual worlds, (ii) the form world, and (iii) the formless world. These three worlds may be mentioned as Buddhist cosmology. Generally, cosmology seems to have nothing concerned with Buddhism. However, if we look at the term properly, we may find the connection therein.
Cosmology is the term for the study of cosmic views in general and for the specific view or collection of images concerning the universe held in a religion or cultural tradition. The twofold meaning of the term is reminiscent of the double meaning of mythology, which is at the same time the study of myths and the dominant or representative assemblage of myths in a given tradition. However, the double usage of the term, it relates also to inquiry in the natural science. It is customary in the natural science to associate the term primarily with the first meaning given; more specifically, these science reserve cosmology for the scientific study of the universe considered as a whole. Thus, it is the most encompassing task of astronomy and is distinct from, even if presupposed by, sciences with a comparatively more limited object, such as physics or geology. We may say that, Buddhist cosmology seems to have connection with the myth part. ... Buddhist cosmology is also mentioned in the The Three Worlds according to King Ruang. However, its significant should be mentioned here. The Trai Phum Phra Ruang was written about seven hundred years ago, in Khmer script, ancient Thai language. The original text was based on the Pāli Canon and its Commentaries, by Phya Lithai, a Thai king. Its original title was the Traibhumikathā or the Sermon on the Three Worlds, later on it became well known as theTrai Phum Phra Ruang or the Three Worlds according to King Ruang. King Ruang, Phra Ruang, or Phya Lithai was the name of a son of King Lelithai who reigned in the city of Sri-Sajjanālaya of Sukhothai dynasty.
According to Sulak Sivalaksa, the book has strong political connotations, especially concerning the concept of Kamma. After Sukhothai, Ayudhya was the capital for almost five hundred years. The Three Worlds according to King Ruang still played a significant role in transmitting, and transforming popular Buddhism into the Thai worldview. Indeed, the text also influenced the neighbouring countries of Laos and Cambodia. The Three Worlds according to King Ruang remained the supreme text even after the destruction of Ayudhyaabout two hundred and fifty years ago. As soon as the new dynasty was established at Dhonburi, and laterBangkok, The Three Worlds according to King Ruangwas copied and distributed widely under royal mandate, and mural paintings adorned new royal temples. However, the text pays an important rolled until the modernized of king Rama V who reformed the kingdom improved the western colonial administration under a centralized bureaucracy and absolute monarchy with modern army to suppress its citizens or provincial governors to be totally loyal to the Crown and Bangkok. Western education introduced by the king was entirely secular, with no room for developing Buddhist ethics or meditation. Although Buddhism was taught in the schools, it was taught ineffectively. ...
The concept of the three worlds is also mentioned in the Pāli texts. The Anguttaranikāya mentions about the three Dhātus. The term Dhātu is used in a cosmological sense to mean the three spheres or planes into which the entire universe is analyzed from an ethical and spiritual point of view. This analysis gives the different aggregates (Khandha) or the elements (Dhātu2 or Dhamma 2) that obtain in the three sphere, indicating the different levels of spiritual and ethical progress reached by beings belonging to the three spheres. The spheres are (i) the sensual sphere (Kāma-dhātu), (ii) the material sphere (Rūpa-dhātu), and (iii) the immaterial sphere (Arūpa-dhātu). They are also called the three worlds (Loka): the sensuous world (Kāma-loka), the material world (Rūpa-loka), and the immaterial world (Arūpa-loka), as well as the three regions (Bhūmi): the sensuous region (Kāmāvacara-bhūmi), the material region (Rūpāvacara-bhūmi), and the immaterial region (Arūpāvacara-bhūmi).

参阅:

W·A·R·吴迪著; 陈礼颂译. 《暹罗史》 1988年. 台北: 商务印书馆. 1947年.

D·G·E·霍尔著; 中山大学东南亚历史研究所译. 《东南亚史》. 北京: 商务印书馆. 1982年.

Coedès, George. Walter F. Vella, 编. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. 1968. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.

SAC. Charuek Wat Pa Mamuang (Phasa Khamen) จารึกวัดป่ามะม่วง (ภาษาเขมร) [Wat Pa Mamuang Inscription (Khmer Version)]. Thai Inscriptions Database. Bangkok: SAC. 2006 [2015-09-07] (泰语)

C. Chakrabongse. Lords of Life. London: Alvin Redman Limited. 1960.

RENOWN TRAVEL Thailand, Laos, Myanmar & Cambodia. [Oct 28, 2013].

Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Foundation. Namanukrom Phramahakasat Thai นามานุกรมพระมหากษัตริย์ไทย [Directory of Thai Kings]. Bangkok: Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Foundation. 2011. ISBN 9786167308258 (泰语).
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Re: 立泰王的《三界论》

帖子 Guṇavara »

论坛好像不能上传文件,这个网址可以下载这本书(泰语+英语):Traibhumikatha The story of the three planes of existence (Thai & English languages).

https://suvacobhikkhu.wordpress.com/201 ... languages/
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