佛隨念、法隨念

Practice of Dana & sila(precepts) & Meditation,etc.
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佛隨念、法隨念

帖子 Ashoka » 2020年 3月 24日 星期二 10:03 am

【Kovida bhante 果维达尊者 開示分享】

阿毗達摩課程系列-佛隨念、法隨念

在開始憶念十隨念之前,我們必須先理解為什麼要憶念佛法僧等諸功德,以及憶念所帶來的利益。首先省思:

1. 審查五欲帶來的危險;例如三天兩夜的感官欲樂狂歡過後,卻帶來不分晝夜、猶如死屍的昏睡痛苦。
2. 激發渴望從五欲中脫離之心。
3. 激發渴望能止息痛苦的出離之心。
4. 通過隨念佛、法、僧的殊勝功德來激發歡喜和愉悅。
5. 通過思惟佛陀、辟支佛、聖弟子們皆行此道而激發崇敬之心。
6. 通過思惟我同樣可嚐僻靜遠離之勝味而激發渴望之心。

十種隨念:佛隨念、法隨念、僧隨念、戒隨念、施隨念、天隨念、寂止隨念、死隨念、三十二身分隨念、入出息念。

※佛隨念

心中緣取一尊莊嚴的佛像,並憶念佛陀世間與出世間功德的素質。有九種:

1. 阿拉漢-最可敬者
佛陀是(1)遠離了各種煩惱;(2)摧毀了煩惱之敵;(3)摧毀了輪迴之輪,即摧毀十二緣取支;(4)值得接受四資具的供養;(5)不論公開和私下場合都沒有秘密的惡行。
“阿拉漢俱”足上述五種素質。

2. 正等正覺-正自覺者
佛陀是一位沒有被任何老師指導而直接體證四聖諦的正自覺者。

3. 明行足-俱足明(智慧)和行(福行)
佛陀俱足三類明:(1)觀智;(2~7)六種神通智-意生身神變、宿命通、天眼通、天耳通、他心通、神足通;(8)阿拉漢的漏盡通,此漏為欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏等四種。
佛陀也俱足十五種行:(1)嚴持淨戒;(2)密護根門;(3)飲食知節量;(4)完全醒覺,即使在躺臥休息時也保持醒覺;(5)俱足信心;(6)俱足正念;(7)俱足慚的德行;(8)俱足愧的德行;(9)俱足真實法的知識,此法上的知識須要符合真實性質,假若只是從閱讀書籍上獲得的知識,則不屬於究竟真實法的範疇;(10)勤勉精進;(11)成就觀慧;(12)成就初禪;(13)成就二禪;(14)成就三禪;(15)成就四禪。
“明行足”俱足上述二十三種素質。

4. 善逝-正語者
(1)佛陀的行是善淨、無過失的,以無執的聖道前往安穩的方向。
(2)佛陀前往優勝之處-不死的涅槃。
(3)佛陀已正行無餘,不會再返回已被道智斷除的煩惱處。
(4)佛陀講法適當-他在適當的場合說適宜的話。他適時地依因緣成熟而說真實、有益之法給心裡不愉快的聽者;他也適時地依因緣成熟而說真實、有益之法給心裡愉快的聽者。
“善逝”俱足上述四種素質。

5. 世間解-31界的理解者
(1)佛陀是對所有世間的了知者。
(2)佛陀知道所有眾生的慣習、與生俱來的心之傾向、性情,以及嗜好。
(3)佛陀知道誰是少染塵垢的慧眼者,或多染塵垢的慧眼者。此處少塵垢的慧眼者,意指猶如向眼睛灑一把塵土,即使只有一兩粒塵土掉進眼睛裡,也會讓眼睛難過而睜不開。
(4)佛陀知道每個人的根器-利根或鈍根。
(5)佛陀知道誰是多行善者和多行惡者。
(6)佛陀知道誰易於隨順教導者和難以教導者。難以教導者猶如把石頭拿去油炸,起鍋後仍是石頭,無法變成可下嚥的食物。
(7)佛陀知道誰容不容易擁有法上的成就。
“世間解”俱足上述七種素質。

6. 無上士調御丈夫
(1)佛陀以最勝的戒、定、慧、解脫(道果智),和解脫知見(省察道果)超越所有世間。
(2)佛陀調伏那些尚未調伏者,佛陀也進一步調御那些已經調御者,並教導他們證入禪那和道果等等。佛陀從不避免與他人接觸,因為他擁有無上高素質的智慧能調伏他人。
“無上士調御丈夫”俱足上述兩種素質。

7. 天人師
(1)佛陀教導人類和天人們今生與來世的利益,以及究竟解脫之法。
(2)佛陀也帶領人類和天人們穿越猶如海洋般看不到盡頭的生死輪迴之荒野。意指佛陀已經示範如何穿越瀑流,人類和天人們只須跟隨佛陀的腳步便知道穿越瀑流的方法。
“天人師”俱足上述兩種素質。

8. 佛陀-覺悟者
(1)佛陀自覺究竟聖諦。
(2)佛陀也令有情覺悟。
“佛陀”俱足上述兩種素質。

9. 世尊
(1)佛陀內心遍滿自在之威。內心的自由來自勤勉訓練的累積。
(2)佛陀獲得了世間和出世間的所有正法智慧。
(3)佛陀的清淨名聲傳遍三界,如花香四溢,令人愉悅。
(4)佛陀全身俱足光輝,一切行相圓滿無缺,令見者心平靜。
(5)佛陀心願必得、所願成就。因為佛陀從未毀壞自己和他人的利益、並且希望自己和他人獲得利益。
(6)佛陀俱足精勤-正精進。
“世尊”俱足上述六種素質。

※法隨念

法隨念的法指九種出世間法:四種道智、四種果智,和一種涅槃。內心緣取一本解說正法的書籍,然後綿密地憶念法的六種功德:

1. 善說的
善說之法是初善、中善、後亦善的。法從戒清淨(初善)、心清淨(中善),直到智清淨(後亦善)是善說的;法擁有意義和文句的清淨,乃至全然完美和純淨的述說著聖行。

2. 可見的
聖法可以被聖者自己現今知見、袪除染污。

3. 無時差的 (不延遲產生果報)
道智發生之後即刻帶來聖果,不用等待來世。

4. 來見的
它值得邀請來檢視,因為四道四果一涅槃遍淨的緣故。猶如乾淨明亮的房子隨時歡迎入內參觀。

5. 引導的
四道四果一涅槃值得被智慧成熟之力引入心田。

6. 智者各自證知
聖法可以被每一位智者自己所體驗。有四種聽法者:(1)極利慧者能在一句簡短開示後即刻體證;(2)中慧者在聽完一部經後即刻體證;(3)鈍慧者需要透過老師教導而體證;(4)最後一種人是終其一生無法體證,只能不斷地培育和累積資糧。

佛隨念或法隨念是由於心傾向思惟佛陀素質或思惟正法功德,因而只能獲得近行定,無法證得安止定。

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※講義

The ten recollections (anussati) 十隨念

1) The recollection of the Buddha
2) The recollection of the Dhamma ∊
3) The recollection of the Samgha ؜
4) The recollection of morality ᝇ
5) The recollection of generosity ᫲
6) The recollection of deva ๞
7) The recollection of peace
8) The recollection of death
9) The recollection of thirty-two body parts, and
10) The mindfulness of breathing. These are the ten recollections.

There are also prerequisites of meditation. 首要省思

1) Review the dangers in sensual desire such as "Sensual desire give little enjoyment, but more suffering."
2) Arouse longing for the escape from sensual desire.
3) Arouse longing for the renunciation that can make end of suffering.
4) Arouse joy and happiness by recollecting special qualities of the Buddha, Dhamma, and Saṃgha.
5) Arouse the awe by thinking that the Buddha, Paccekabuddha, and disciples of Buddha entered upon this path.
6) Arouse the eagerness by thinking that one can surely know the taste of the bliss of seclusion.

1. The Recollection of the Buddha 佛隨念

There are nine qualities of the Buddha.

1) Araham – worthy one
The Buddha is one (1) who stands remotely and far away from all defilements, (2) who destroys his enemies, the defilements, (3) who destroys the spokes of Samsāra, the twelve factors of dependent origination, (4) who is worthy of receiving the four requisites, (5) who is absence of secret evil-doing.

2) SammƗ-sambuddho – fully self-enlightened one
The Buddha is one who realize the four noble truths with direct knowledge without being guided by any teacher.

3) VijjƗ-cara a-sampanno – endowed with knowledge and conduct

The Buddha is one who is endowed with eight knowledges:
(1) the insight knowledge,(2) the supernormal power of mind-made body (mano-mayiddhi), (3) the knowledge of recollecting past existences, (4) the knowledge of divine eye, (5) the knowledge of divine ear, (6) the knowledge of reading other living being's mind, (7) the supernormal power of diving into earth etc., (8) the knowledge of destruction of taints.

The Buddha is also endowed with fifteen conducts: (1) observing the precepts, (2) guarding the sense doors, (3) moderating in food, (4) devotion to wakefulness, (5) being endowed with faith, (6) being endowed with mindfulness, (7) being endowed with moral shame, (8) being endowed with moral dread, (9) being endowed with Dhamma-knowledge (suta), (10) being diligent, (11) attaining wisdom (paññā), (12) attaining the first jhāna, (13) attaining the second jhāna, (14) attaining the third jhāna, and (15) attaining the fourth jhāna.

4) Sugato – well-spoken one
The manner of going is good, purified, and blameless (sobhaṇa-gata) by noble path without attachment to the direction of safety.
The Buddha has gone to the excellent place, deathless NibbƗna (sundara-gata).

The Buddha has rightly gone without going back to the defilements abandoned by path knowleges (sammƗ-gata).
The Buddha enunciates rightly (sammƗ-gada) – he speaks timely fitting to the place. He speaks timely if the speech is true, beneficial, and unpleasant to the listener. He also speaks timely if the speech is true, beneficial, and pleasant to the listener.

5) Lokavidū – knower of the world
The Buddha is the knower of worlds.

The Buddha also knows all beings' habit, their inherent tendencies, their temperaments, and their bents (inclinations).
The Buddha also knows them as with little dust (defilement) on their (wisdom) eyes and with much dusts on their (wisdom) eyes.
The Buddha also knows them as with keen faculties and with dull faculties.
The Buddha also knows them as with good behaviors and with bad behaviors.
The Buddha also knows them as easy to teach and hard to teach.
The Buddha also knows them as capable and incapable of achievement.

6) Anuttaro-purisa-damma-sārathi – incomparable leader of men to be tamed
The Buddha surpasses the whole world with higher virtue, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, and the knowledge and vision of deliverance.
The Buddha tames those who have not yet tamed. He also further tames those who have already tamed teaching them to attain jhƗnas, stream-entry path and so on.

7) Satthā deva-manussānam – teacher of men and devas
The Buddha is one who teaches the ultimate goal and the benefits here and hereafter to men and devas.
The Buddha also gets men and devas across the wilderness of birth.

8) Buddho – enlightened
The Buddha discovered the ultimate truths by himself.
The Buddha is also the awakened of others.

9) BhagavƗ – blessed one
The Buddha has supreme lordship over his mind.
The Buddha has achieved all kinds of mundane and supramundane knowledges.
The Buddha has exceedingly pure fame spreading through the three worlds.
The Buddha has glory of all limbs and perfect in every aspect.
The Buddha has his wish, in other words, the production of what he wanted. (The Buddha wanted the beneficial to himself and others.) The Buddha has the endeavor, the right effort.

2. The recollection of the Dhamma 法隨念

The Dhamma here means supremundane Dhammas: the four path knowledges, four fruition knowledges, and NibbƗna. There are six qualities of the Dhamma.

1) Svākkhāto – well expounded
In this quality, the learning Dhamma is also included.
The well expounded Dhamma is good in the beginning, good in the middle, good in the end. It is pure with meaning, with detail, is utterly perfect and pure, announcing (pakāsana) the noble practice.

2) Sandiṭṭiko – visible here and now
The noble Dhamma can be seen and experienced by the noble one himself here and now, letting the defilements go.

3) Akāliko – not delayed (in giving its result)
The path knowledge gives its fruit immediately next to its own occurrence.

4) Ehipassiko – inviting of inspection (come and see)
It is worthy of inviting of inspection because of its purity.

5) Opaneyyiko – onward leading
The path and fruition knowledges are worthy of bringing to the mind by the power of development.

6) Paccattam veditabbo viññūhi – directly experienceable by the wise
The noble Dhamma can be experienced by the wise each in himself. (Ugghā itaññ can experience at the end of a short discourse.)

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